Understanding Speaker Frequency Response

How do you decide which speaker is the right one? What are the key factors that make you choose some speaker or a speaker system? We have conducted some research and found that a large number of users base their decision on the specifications printed on the speaker box in order to make the best purchase.

In fact, this is the most convenient and easiest way to set up speakers, especially for those of you who don’t know much about speakers and their performance. Users find the frequency response of a device to be one of the most reliable characteristics of it. Unfortunately, the frequency response range is not enough to define the quality of audio that is produced by the speaker on its own. In addition, most of the buyers do not really know what frequency response means, and they do not really care about it.

It was for this reason that I decided to write this article and explain what the term “frequency response” means, and I hope to help you gain a better understanding of what to expect from a particular speaker based on the specifications listed on the speaker’s website. It takes some time and focus to understand abstract specifications such as frequency response, impedance, SPL, etc., but if you stick with us at the end of the article, we guarantee you will have a much clearer understanding of what is happening.

What is Speaker Frequency Response?

This is the range of frequencies that a speaker responds to, which is the range of frequencies that a speaker or a speaker system is able to reproduce. In fact, it is extremely unlikely that you would not know this already, but the human ear is able to recognize and hear only sounds within the range of 20Hz – 20kHz. Despite the fact that most of us are not able to hear all the sounds, even if they are within this range, our speakers can certainly reproduce them despite our inability to hear them. If they can’t, then our ears won’t mind, but if you do have a speaker that covers the entire range, then it is considered to be prestigious if you have one of them. As well as giving you an idea of the speaker’s quality, this is also a useful tool. The reason why is going to become clear in a few minutes. First, let’s take a look at at how the high-low ratio determines which frequency bands are used in the audio spectrum.


From 20 to 60 Hz, it is the range of frequencies that cover a wide range of frequencies. Tones which fall under this category are the deepest tones that can be heard, even though most of us are not able to hear them because of strong vibrations which spread out the sound waves as they travel through the air. The harp, tuba, bass guitar, bass trombone, and a few other instruments can create such a low tone: for instance, a tuba, a tuba, a bass guitar.


A low-frequency band is also included in this category, which is between 60 and 250 Hz in frequency. Compared to the previous band, this one is much broader and there are a lot more instruments capable of producing the tones contained within it (saxophone, cymbal, trumpet, violin, clarinet, bass guitar, etc.). It has even been reported that some human voices are capable of reproducing these tones. There is a greater ease of hearing these tones as opposed to the sub-bass tones.

Low midrange

A low midrange band can be classified as a low tone as its frequency response spans from 250Hz to 500Hz, although these are still considered low tones. There are many instruments that may be used to produce them, some male and female voices can also produce them, and they are also easily identified and heard by most people.


Tones within the range of 500Hz to 2kHz are included in this group of tones. There is no doubt that the sounds of each song and each melody are responsible for the general impression that you have about it, so it is very important for them to be delivered properly in the way they should be. The vocals fall under this category, and they should always be kept in perfect condition at all times.

Upper midrange

The upper midrange band covers a frequency range between 2 kHz and 4 kHz. In this recording, vocals play a very important and prominent role. There is no doubt that rhythm and percussion instruments are capable of delivering these tones in terms of instruments, but in terms of how they are delivered.

Lower treble

As long as the frequency response falls between 4kHz and 6kHz, then it is the lower treble band that is responsible for the overall clarity of the audio signal in the 4kHz – 6kHz range.


This band encompasses a wide range of frequencies, from 6 kHz to 20 kHz, which makes it the largest band in the entire spectrum by far. However, there is a problem with these high frequencies because not all instruments are capable of producing them and not everyone is able to hear them. However, if the sounds are not reproduced properly, they will get distorted and will not be enjoyable for anyone to listen to.

Why is Frequency Response so Important?

I do believe that there is no such thing as just frequency response as the essence of sound quality. However, I do not think anyone will deny that frequency response is a critical characteristic that plays a huge role in the overall sound quality of a speaker. Several experts say that if you want to be able to understand music or any other type of audio content, you will need to understand the frequency response of the music.

In order to recognize a device that has a good frequency response, you are probably wondering how to do it.

Performance and sound quality of a speaker are not solely determined by whether it is capable of reproducing a certain range of frequencies but also by how well it is able to capture those waves. It is also important to reproduce the frequencies at the same volume in order to ensure that they are delivered in the same way that they were recorded so that all frequencies can be clearly heard. The speaker you are using might cause some of the color and overall quality of the original track to fade or lose some of its clarity.

Ideally, your speaker should produce the same kind of sound that you would hear if you were listening to the band or orchestra playing the music live in a concert hall, as if you were listening to it from up close. The speaker must be able to reproduce even the most complex sounds that contain a wide range of frequencies and do so at the same time and in a balanced manner, enabling it to reproduce even the most complex sounds.

In the specifications list, you can usually find some information regarding the frequency response of the device. On the other hand, based only on those two numbers, you can’t actually draw any conclusions. Surely you are wondering how it is possible for this to be possible. Many people believe that a speaker is good enough if its frequency response is within the range of the audible range (20Hz-20kHz), which is considered to be within the audible range. This is not enough, as you must also know the amount of deviation from the flat frequency response that your speaker produces across the entire frequency range, which is expressed in decibels, so you can adjust your speaker accordingly. You can determine whether a speaker is good or not by seeing whether it has a frequency range of 20 Hz – 20 kHz with a deviation of X dB over the specified range, if the speaker has a frequency range of 20 Hz – 20kHz. It is impossible to draw any conclusions based on a deviation if there is no specification of it.

How Different Speaker Drivers Produce Different Sounds?

Usually, the sounds that your speakers are expected to reproduce are quite complex, which is why it is more beneficial to use an entire speaker system in order to reproduce these sounds accurately rather than just using a single speaker. In order for the system to function properly, the full spectrum of audio has been divided into parts. There is no signal shared among any of the components in the system and therefore they are capable of delivering more accurate sound than a single speaker that would have to do all the work on its own. As a result, without a crossover, this would not be possible. Essentially, crossovers are electronic circuits that assign specific signals to a specific driver or speaker based on the type of signal they are receiving. There are several crossovers that can be combined together to create a crossover network made of a series of filters that pass the split signals on to the corresponding parts of the speaker system, known as band-pass filters, and which are called crossover networks.

In the crossover category, there are a number of different types, but the most common is the two-way crossover, which is made up of a lowpass and a highpass filter. Low-pass filters pass the signal to the components that reproduce the low tones of the signal, whereas high-pass filters pass the signal to the components which reproduce the high tones of the signal.

There are multiple drivers inside a speaker and every one of them is responsible for a certain frequency range that is covered by the speaker. A full range of drivers, woofers and tweeters, mid-range drivers, and subwoofers are the next step in our developing our audio equipment.

Full-range drivers

The full-range driver is a driver which is capable of reproducing all the frequencies within the enclosure when only one driver is present inside the enclosure, which is why it is known as the full-range driver. As you would expect, this has to be a bad thing because the speaker’s performance is very limited, mainly because of its size, so you cannot really expect it to perform well. It is likely that if it is large enough, the speaker will be capable of producing nice highs and lows. Small speakers come with a lot of advantage when it comes to reproducing human voices, while the middle-sized speakers can easily deliver high frequencies, and vice versa. Because of this, the best solution is to combine two or three drivers of different sizes into a single enclosure in order to improve the sound.


This is one of the biggest part of the speaker, which comes with a very large driver (up to 15 inches) which is responsible for reproducing frequencies that are very low, low to mid-range (between 20 Hz and 2 kHz). Because the woofer’s size affects the size of the speaker’s enclosure, the woofer’s size determines the speaker’s size as well. In most cases, bigger woofers are integrated into larger cabinets that are used for floor-standing speakers, whereas smaller woofers are used for bookcase speakers and vice versa.


Unlike woofers, tweeters are typically smaller in size, and they are responsible for the delivery of high frequencies, usually higher than 2 kHz. The high-pass signals are picked up by these drivers and reproduce high-frequency tones that are likely to dissipate over the living room due to the high-pass signals received. If the dispersion of the sound is too wide, then the listener will be unable to determine where the sound is coming from in case the dispersion is too wide. Having a dispersion that is extremely narrow can mean that a listener will be limited in his or her ability to select the position in which to listen, if the dispersion is extremely narrow. It is therefore extremely important to reproduce these tones accurately on a recording in order to achieve the best results.

Mid-range drivers

The mid-woofer is not included in every speaker, just like the woofers and tweeters. Manufacturers tend to develop these speakers so that they can increase the sound quality of their speakers by separating the low and midrange frequencies even further from each other so that they can create an even better audio experience. In terms of frequency response, these drivers can reproduce the sounds within the range of 200 Hz to 5 kHz.


In order to achieve the lowest tones (below 200 Hz), subwoofers are specially designed. It is highly recommended that a good speaker system includes a subwoofer since smaller drivers aren’t able to reproduce the sub-bass frequencies (the frequencies whose strength is more in the sense that they are felt rather than heard). Adding a subwoofer to your home theater speaker system is a great idea, since it makes the experience of watching or listening to a movie much more immersive (especially when the movie includes plenty of explosions and earthquakes). It is important to note that when it comes to music, they deliver the sounds played by deep bass instruments. They can be powered and passive.